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A Climate Change with Matt Matern Climate Podcast


74b: From Sea Ice to Glaciers: Reflective Technology's Impact

Guest Name(s): Dr. Leslie Field, Dr. Soumitra Das, & Dr. Subarna Bhattacharyya

Matt Matern speaks with Dr. Leslie Field, Dr. Soumitra Das, and Dr. Subarna Bhattacharyya. They discuss combating Himalayan glacier melt using Dr. Field’s Bright Ice Initiative, which increases ice reflectivity. Dr. Das emphasizes policy engagement, and Dr. Bhattacharyya provides climate modeling expertise. They announce a climate concert from November 5-10 to raise awareness and funds. The episode underscores the importance of innovation and global cooperation in tackling climate change.

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Episode 74b: Dr. Leslie Field, Dr. Soumitra Das, & Dr. Subarna Bhattacharyya
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You’re listening to A Climate Change with Matt Matern. And I’ve got three great guests on the program today. I’ve got got Dr. Leslie Field, who’s a teacher at Stanford as well as holder of 42 patents. Leslie, Dr. Wesley has been on the show once before with us, she runs the bright ice initiative. Welcome Dr. field to the show.

Thank you. Yeah, I’m so happy to be here. Thank you.

And I’ve also got doctors, Soumitra Das, from the Healthy Climate Initiative. Thank you for being on the program as well.

And third guest is Dr. Subarna Bhattacharyya. I’m probably mispronouncing that a little bit, but maybe you can help me out on the last name pronunciation Doctor.

Thank you. That is Subarna Bhattacharyya.

Thank you very much. And for being on the program. Doctor, you had been a physicist and worked in Applied Engineering climate data, then went to become a climate modeler at Lawrence Livermore Labs, what we’re going to be talking about today is the work that all three of you are doing related to the melting of the Himalayan glaciers, which is a bit in the news now with the incredible and devastating flooding in Pakistan.

And with that, Leslie, what, what are you working on with, and collaborating together to see what you can do to stop this from happening in the future?

Yeah, thank you very much. So as, as you know, from previous interview, I started some time ago, working on ice, it seemed to me that the loss of reflectivity in the world, many scientists were pointing that that was accelerating climate change.

And so I wanted to do something that would reduce climate devastation hit a key lever point that would allow us to have the time to make that needed transition to sustainable fuels and energy to get off carbon, basically, that was planning for the future.

And I was aiming at sea ice. And, you know, the truth is, it’s very hard to get permissions to do testing on sea ice, it’s international waters, I was warned by the International Maritime Organization that they understood what we were trying to do, but that was going to take a long, long time to get permissions. That has turned out to be the case, a little over a year ago, to meet her Deus approached me to say, Wouldn’t your technology work with perhaps helping the Himalayas?

And I thought about that glacial ice? And it’s like, yeah, I think that would and it was before the current crises were so evident. But you know, certainly at play, where possibility of floods downstream as Himalayan melt and possibility of death, global, you know, and loss of water supplies for that part is for over 1.6 billion people. So it’s a huge problem.

And what has you asking us to be here today, I think are the things that are recently in the headline of this is not a future thing we’re working on anymore.

This is right now, this is really devastating. And, you know, over time, the glacial loss of reflectivity and the sea ice loss of reflectivity are about equally important in what’s accelerating global warming and climate change as well. So in the long term, we can probably address what I was trying to address in the first place.

But right now we’ve got urgent situations where we can help people now we think, of course, it always takes some testing and some co development with people who actually understand the situation on the ground with what the challenges really are, what is going to work, what isn’t, I know, we’re going to have to develop our technology a bit farther as we go through that experience.

But it’s a it’s a mighty collaboration. And I’m so thankful show Mitra is building this incredible team, which includes subarna, who it’s been a pleasure to be working with for years, who does this incredible climate modeling getting to predict what would happen from a tiny field test if you extrapolated that out into the world? So I’m just absolutely thrilled to be with us completely 18 here.

Well, Dr. Soumitra Das, maybe you can tell us a little bit about your collaboration with Dr. Field and and and the Bright Ice Initiative and and why you think it will work in the Himalayas and and what you see as next steps.

Thank you, Mac, decision maker doctorum, chair and executive director from pelvic climate, we share our US following Leslie’s work for some time with sea ice, reflectivity, reducing the increasing the activity with the solutions he has gone developed over the years. At the same time, I was watching that how ignol Endless here, which is the country that called eight countries that covers the mountain are going to face over time is already experiencing one problem of this melting.

We see how the melting happens, the rapid flow of water causes flood downstream like Bangladesh today we see in Pakistan, we can we see that in India, and that is happening over the years and millions of people are getting becoming refugees.

On the other side of the problem that let’s talk about is that water crisis, this same glasses, create 10 microliters or more from this in this country that flow through this countries. And people are dependent on those rivers for their agriculture, for their water, for hydroelectric power, and that think about that glaciers are not there, what will happen to the water situation, agriculture now that things are just countries, and this is also happening in certain parts of this country is if you notice,

Well, we certainly see it here in Southern California or all over California and in our inability to, to, you know, have enough water to drink and to water, you know, all the things that we need to put water on. And, and it’s because the the the snow up in the mountains is melting a lot faster, and we’re not getting enough precipitation in those mountains to to hold the water stores that we need. And, and the water crisis in the western United States is just getting worse and worse.

So I think the technology that Dr. Leslie Field as developed as something that could could be a breakthrough for all of these mountainous regions and regions that have diminishing ice. So what Dr. Bhattacharyya what, what is your role in, in working with these two, to bring this work to kind of fruition here?

Thank you, our job at CLI informatics, a little bit about us that we are startup working on the climate predictions. And we provide localized climate predictions well ahead of time for, you know, people, businesses, governments to be able to mitigate the risk of catastrophic climate change. And what we bring to the table in this forum is extensive custom climate modeling expertise, and along with analysis, simulations, impact assessments, both locally globally, you know, near term, what is the immediate impact versus what’s going to be the long term impact?

Until when can an intervention we till till how much time? How long? What length of time? Should the intervention go on? What would happen if you stopped the intervention and, you know, let it come back to normal? So, we have all those questions when we want when we are thinking about an intervention as a climate restoration solution.

So our team, myself and my partner, Dr. Delphina, Ivan Nova, the CTO of CLI probiotics, I’m the CEO and co founder, along with Dr. Lena, we both used to be at the lab together Lawrence Livermore National Lab when all these questions were, you know, haunting us about climate change and how we can make a difference to our lives today by bringing in this technology.

And so our contribution to this work is actually very central. In the sense. We are able to do the climate modeling regionally over the Himalayas and different parts of the Himalayas and understand how much part of the changes are due to the natural climate variability, how much part of that is due to the pollutions how much water A lot of that has been driven by the black carbons.

And what we should do where where we should do the intervention to get the optimal impact of this restoration solution. All of that has to be chalked out in detail. Some part of that would be tested through the field test. But field tests are expensive, and we cannot actually do experiment overall, the Himalayas. So that’s where, you know, large scale climate modeling comes in.

That’s our Well, thank you for that explanation. And it seems as though that’s obviously a key component. Let’s back up just a second. And Leslie, maybe you can explain to the audience and the 30 seconds before our break, and maybe we can come back to this after the break is, what exactly are the chemicals that you’re using to, to do this work? And kind of explain how you, you came to this? We’ve got about 30 seconds, so well, we’ll give you a little bit of a thumbnail sketch, and then we’ll come back to it after the break.

We’ll give a start. Yeah, the crazy question I asked myself all those years ago was is there a safe, reflective material that could be used to help, you know, break that ice albedo feedback loop that that is to allow us to keep the brightness to keep the reflectivity of ice. And I had a few things I needed and wanted something that was already a commercial product in widespread use that had already been vetted for safety.

And what I came to was something called Sandy hollow glass microspheres, these things are used all over many companies make them they’re like a very fine white sand. What’s nice about them is they’re not a plastic, they don’t act like a plastic they don’t, they don’t have oil trying to cling to them or anything. It’s very handy they float to turns out some of the glaciers have gotten dark. And so these materials actually, it looks like so far in small scale tests, that they will rise above the darkening agents in some cases.

Well, that’s a that’s an amazing development and brilliant achievement on you to for you to come up with this. We’ll be back in just one minute. You’re listening to A Climate Change. And we’ve got three eminently qualified guests on the program. And they’re gonna give you some incredible information about the work they’re doing to save the Himalayan glaciers and Arctic ice around the world. So we’ll be back in just one minute.

You’re listening to A Climate Change, this is Matt Matern, your host, and I’ve got Dr. Leslie Field on the program as well as Dr. Das and Dr. Bhattacharyya. Going back to Dr. Leslie Field, if you could tell us a little bit more about how you came up with this compound that you’re using, that’s going to help save the Arctic ice?

Sure. Well, I tried a number of things I am, as you kindly stated, an inventor. And, you know, I’ve been playing with innovative technologies for a long, long time. And so I’m also not afraid to try things that are a little strange. So I considered anything white that would be harmless, or anything bright. And overtime. So that includes daisies that includes hay, they don’t work very well. What I found, and that includes sheets, and I found those are so hard to keep in place.

But what I did find, you know, just relentlessly searching on the web for bright materials that might be able to float that were hydrophilic. So that was one key thing. Why do I like hydrophilic? What does that mean? That means it likes water doesn’t like oil, it’s that sort of thing. And that meant to me that it wouldn’t be picking up any oil based pollutants. It wouldn’t be intrinsically poisonous, like plastics tend to be or oil based pollutants, and that it would stay on water or ice once it got there.

And I liked those thoughts. It also turns out that it’s the sort of material is made out of compounds we all evolved in it’s a lot of it is silica as a glass form, not as a form that causes any harm, but it’s a form that is glassy. And a lot of the reflectivity because it’s hollow, is from these reflections that you get if you know that if you’ve got some thin shell of something and you’ve got light coming in, it bounces off that first layer and also bounces off that second layer, you know And so you can end up with a lot of reflectivity with a very adding a very small amount of material that we all basically evolved with.

You know, Silica is one of the most abundant materials on the planet. All of that said, though, we continue to have first do no harm is our first and most important principle. And if we ever were to find that there was some strange interaction or some threat, you know, from from this, and we keep doing a lot of diligent testing to see it with experts to see if there’s any, you know, concerns, we would change our material, if we find that it’s not effective, we would change our material.

And so that’s just part of the commitment we have. And, you know, just like collaborating with subarna Bhattacharya here for climate modeling, you know, you go to the experts, you get their opinions. We are working with shou Mitra, because he knows the Himalayan region and he’s pulling in other experts. So that’s a commitment. We have all that said this, this is our favorite choice so far. But you know, the story remains to be written.

Well, I applaud you the great science behind coming up with that. And it seems as though it’s starting to work and, you know, hopefully it can be tested even further. Sure. Maitra. What do you see as the next step with working with Leslie in terms of rolling this out and, and testing it in the Himalayans.

So as I was talking about, that technology is a piece of the solution critical. But still, we need more than that, to solve this huge problem we have. It’s a big problem. We are talking about the holy Marla’s, which is 300 to 3000 kilometers long, and it crosses eight countries. We to solve this killer problem, we need to get in need to involve bigger entities, lot more people, experts from different parts of the world, you need to do that.

So when I saw that stubbornness, climate modeling the potential, we saw Leslie solution, I said, What in bright solutions we have denied in our hands, but not sure that will take us an actual solving the problem, we need to solve the problem. And that is dub the melting, and at least for another 3040 year until this climate is stabilized. How do we get there?

So I started thinking the way to get there the need to have the grassroot movement people to have the people get the policymakers attention and how policymakers How do you get porcelain makers attention? What is their incentive to invest in this thing, they only respond either through crises, or they’re constantly Wences demand for it all is that we can do it, then I can not going to be able to successful this climate movement is happening for a long, long period of time.

We need to get safe, it seems as though this recent event in Pakistan with the tragic consequences of this flooding would get the politicians thinking that now is the time to act and they need to start investing in in this technology right.

Right, but not completely. So here are the areas where we are getting there. So this kind of start is not the first time this happened. We have several slots in even in Pakistan, we had several what he called lithium outputs for us in India a few years ago, and a lot of floods in bomba this, what we policymakers do, they try to do a bandaid solution at that moment to stop the prices.

What we are trying to do is that okay, there is a problem. I don’t know. And I don’t think that the policymaker policymakers know the easiest solution. What do you want to do what we want to do showcase Leslie’s and two burners work. At the same time, let the whole world know there is a solution. There is a problem. Now we can see this problem. But the same time, we’re not telling there is a problem. We have a potential solution that you can use to solve the problem.

And that’s where the climate concert is coming. That’s what the Prime Minister is not we’re not going to get climate conference and presenting Get to the same people we talk to all the time preaching to the same fire, we want to get millions of people to be part of this climate answered. And no, you don’t have to know the details of the solution. They need to know they’re credible people involved making this solution, there is a solution. And there is a problem. But we want to get them in a way that for them easy to connect.

And they will tell us more about this climate con concert and when is it going to happen? And how can we support it?

So climate concert is a brilliant idea. For a lot of people contributing to it, lots of lots of people from all over the world. The idea here is that we want global participants passion, how do we do that? We taught the Doofy gate, musicians, performers from all over the world, different athletes from each continent, then threw them there, that country could be part of this whole solution.

Meaning they get to know the players the problem. And they get to know that the solution and people are working on them. And we haven’t rested for them, go to your policymakers go to the UN and tell them there’s a solution of water it our life depended on it. So that’s what the climate concert taking off musician from each continent.

And it is going to happen November five to ten to six days, two hours each, every day. And this will be broadcast through online channels, and also through other venues like TV, as well as radio like yours.

Well, that’s great. Certainly we need to raise awareness. I I have the sense I’m I may not be accurate, because obviously it’s hard to know everybody’s mindset. But I feel like there’s a consciousness shift underway, and that people are waking up to the seriousness of this problem.

I mean, I let’s hope it’s not too late. Let’s hope that we have enough time to turn this around. Suvarna, what are you seeing in your modeling, which makes you hopeful that this prize process, the bright ice initiative, and Leslie is rolled out is going to work when it is scaled.

So we actually have done quite a bit of work. Thanks to Leslie and her efforts, we did the modeling for the Arctic ice, sea ice as to how it’s going to behave, if indeed, Leslie’s suggested innovative materials are sprayed down to the bare sea ice. And some of those results are very promising, it suggests that we can definitely have the ice back, which is right now melting and becoming thinner, we can grow it back as a multi year ice pack.

And in doing so, we would also be able to stave off the sunlight reasonably. And to the extent that it would make a difference in the, you know, watts per square meter that would be sent back to the space because of this reflection. And there are many other impacts. Like, there there is some impact some small, slowing down of the rise in temperature. But what is important is we made a very conservative experiment. And even that is showing these results which is very promising.

And we expect that now when we get the so there the first set of results were published in Earth’s future, using Arctic wide, you know, entire sea ice in the Arctic getting deployed with his innovation, then we are currently much more excited about a regional strategy, smaller region application of the same materials and ran several sets of sensitivity experiments which actually shows lots of promise, particularly with respect to handling and mitigating the issues of the Arctic amplification. If we can slow down the active amplification that can slow down a lot of this, you know, extreme weather generating phenomena and processes.

That is a potential breakthrough of, you know, tremendous importance for all of us. So, you’re listening to A Climate Change this is Matt Matern, your host and we’ll be back in just one minute talking with three of the top scientists in the world about how we can make a change that would save our ice and glaciers around the world.

You’re listening to A Climate Change, this is your host, Matt Matern. And we were just talking with subarna Bhattacharyya, and Doctor, tell us a little bit you were just finishing up your answer as to why these tests that you’ve been running are and the data modelling that you’ve been doing are promising, and particularly on a regional basis, because you’re not planning to blanket the entire Himalayas with Dr. Leslie Fields. silicone compound, correct?

That’s right. So we tested this on a smaller region. But a very important region of the Fram strait. And that’s where we saw very promising results. Because Fran trade is a particularly important strategy strategy carrier, because that’s where all the sea ice from the Arctic, you know, flows out of the Arctic, into the Atlantic through the Fram strait. And that’s how we keep losing the sea ice.

But this, this intervention, if deployed on the Fram Strait, has a lot of promise, because it slows down that flowing of the sea ice into the Atlantic. And as a result of that, there are a whole lot of dynamic changes. That happens. And it that’s other other than the fact that it also affects the atmosphere, you can see ice circulation.

And that’s what reduces the sea ice export into the Atlantic and keeps building the trigger sea ice into the central Arctic. And that’s what this multi year, I expect back. And so all of that is very promising.

But Leslie, tell us, just from an engineering perspective, how that could be accomplished, how much you would material you would need to to make that really work. And is that years away? Or decades? How far away? Is? It? Is that process from actually happening?

Yeah, really important. So the the wish, the aim has always been a localized modification, right? And on CI says, As barnas is saying correctly, you know, taking the results from our tiny tests that we’ve done on upon, for instance, but taking the data from that, and extrapolating it out is is how we get to determine how effective could it be? Sea ice is a long way away. Still, I think I think we’re still extremely far from permissions.

I think we are extremely because it is international waters. It’s the whole world’s thing. And nobody so far, I think is feeling the same kind of pain that they’re feeling regionally in the Himalayas, for instance, where you know, homes are disappearing, lives are disappearing. And so it’s it’s a different matter. So I think on the Himalayas, we have a chance of getting there next year with permissions and collaborations.

There may even be a small test this year, again, permissions and collaborations and it’s people who are seeing right in their backyards. The directness of this. So this is the faster solution. And it’s the more urgent solution to find the right regions where we can help the most people and have the best fit to our technology however, we we co develop it so that it has that fit, and just start addressing really urgent situations, again, regionally.

And that’s something you can get permissions for and show Mitra and our whole team’s right, we’re we’re all working on this Himalayan melt working group together and on the climate benefit concert together with many more people you’re not seeing here. You know, the this is where the permissions and the ability to Get this done, we’ll come from still needs funding.

But, you know, we’re getting there. And so I think we may see at least initial testing and some key regions, you know, tiny this year, probably just to get our feet wet, so to speak. And then the following year, more impactful, we hope.

Well, that’s great. And it always takes a first step. So you’re taking the first steps. And it’s unfortunate that it probably took some kind of tragedy to open people’s eyes to the need to act and act quickly.

But at least their lives will not be lost in vain if we can come up with a solution and, and move forward to to rectify the situation before, obviously, millions and billions of other people are adversely affected. So where do you think Sumitra? This is in the process of getting approval from governments that the eight governments that you know, are in charge of the Himalayas?

Thank you very much for the question. Very, very important question. So, right now, what we have done, created a working group, Marlin melt working group that consists of scientist working from in that area. So when I let me back up, when I met subarna, and Leslie, I talked to Andy, the solution can be useful for one I can do modeling, but we need local experts who have that experience of that area. So started looking for take me quite some time looking for those people.

So we got people from Nepal, India, and even from Germany, who had experience with Milan plus years worked there for several years. formed a key man we meet regularly to discuss how we can get there. So we are in the process of planning to wait design, here’s how we can get the different scenarios, we can test it out that under which scenarios, this solution would best possible if we cannot see that, okay, this solution, this scenario doesn’t work well, what other solution they can use to fix the problem.

So this is the testing scenario that we are thinking at this time. At the same time, a group of scientists are going to nalas within a month. And they are coming going from Indian skeptic technologies, which is one of the premier or the premier institutes in India going to knowledge to their testing, and they offered us that look, we can do a small pre trial. If we get the materials that Leslie showed, then we can go and see that what kind of results we are getting.

So we are in the process of getting we have the team expertise. And now and also the government institutes like iKey Ulis, Gods of India, other academic Institute’s are not part of this process. So the permission is not very hard, the area is going to be small. So it’s not going to be eight countries. But just in India, we thought in Nepal now you’re thinking about India small test and climate concert is building up the other country that no we can do not only in India, but also in other countries as well.

So that’s the next step. So one step at a time first step is that okay this How does it work in this under these different conditions? And then second step is that okay, it works well. And the people now you know, what admissions we can get, we are trying to, you know, Ally United Nations with it. And the next step is that okay, it works well, then how about the next eight countries together, you see that.

Thank you for giving us that information, given us a better context for how this is moving forward. Suvarna in terms of modeling, how large of an area would it take, based upon your current modeling to make a significant impact in slowing down the the melt of the Himalayan glaciers?

You know, the study we did is India uptake and those hearings are very different than the ones in India, particularly. If we look at the Himalayan terrains, it’s much more rugged. And there’s a lot more different kinds of regional local climate dynamics in play there. And so we would not be able to directly take the results from the Arctic and apply it there, we have to do those modeling separately to be able to answer this.

But we expect that even at a very fine high resolution grid, we would be able to get the impact over all of the Himalayas, the impact of a small region and creating that with this intervention, and what the impact of that would be, overall, the Himalayas that we wish we should be able to do.

So you really have to wait until you do these tests that you’ve planned. Yes, that will hopefully be going forward in 2022. And, and in 2023, which will give you the data in order to make better modeling decisions or better, you have better a higher degree of confidence as to what the results will be going forward. So you’re listening to A Climate Change. This is Matt Matern, your host, and we have three great scientists on the program today, giving us a great lesson in what what can be done to help stop the effects of global warming, and turn back the clock a bit to give us a little more time to solve these problems. So we’ll be right back. Stay tuned.

You’re listening to A Climate Change. This is Matt Matern, your host and we were just talking to Dr. Subarna Bhattacharyya and Doctor, you were talking about the effects on the Himalayan region. And I don’t know if you would finish your answer in terms of how does this affect the farming related to people who live in that region.

This is absolutely central to the end, you’re supporting the agriculture irrigation and much of human life in Indian northern fertile plains, which is you know, some among the most populated part of India. And saving the Himalayan glaciers is going to save the our ensure the continuity of this big rivers there are about 19 big rivers in the natural India, but the whole Indian subcontinent, which is fed from this delicious in the Himalayas.

And so retreating glaciers will also mean retreating the reverse, which is going to affect the irrigation, the agriculture, the basic food security of this region. And the other problem we are having, or we’re actually going to face is that of the sea level rise, so not only the inland areas, but also the coastal areas are going to get affected with this additional freshwater melt going into the sea.

And that’s going to raise the local sea level. And it could also affect the coastal sea levels around other countries and other continents. And so it’s all one big connected problem. And it is imperative that we bring down our emissions and it may not be one solution that is going to do the magic. It’s a multiple set of solutions that have to be put together.

You know, a conscious effort to reduce pollutions reduce emission, put Leslie’s innovation in place, all of these have to be working together to make this happen. And modeling can show exactly where and how much all of that needs to be done.

And I just wanted to remind the audience that this concert or climate concert is going to be occurring on November 5 through November 10. And tell us a little bit Leslie as to how people can be involved in this and contribute.

Oh, yeah, it’s an exciting collaboration and it’s got more joy in it, in some ways, right to be able to get music together. It turns out that several of us in the group are musicians ourselves. And so we’re contributing some of our music. We’re rounding up other performers and such to join in. And that’s a that is how we get this international collaboration going.

And that’s, that’s exciting in itself. But then people are there are sponsorship opportunities for companies for the cost of the concert and then there’s a show Mitra correct me if I’ve got this wrong, but I believe that we’ve got then a crowdfunding component, you know, you can contribute a little or a lot, you know, as you see fit for watching the concert.

I think it’s free, actually, if you if you can’t even contribute anything. So what’s the tell the audience how they can participate in crowdfunding?

I’m gonna leave that to Soumitra. Okay. Oh, sure. Soumitra, tell us a little bit about how people can participate in crowdfunding and, and listening to it online.

So crowdfunding, we have set up a donor box, and I can send a link for the donor box. That’s, that’s the one thing so you can click on this, and you can put $1.50 to whatever amount you can no mouth is small amount for us. So that’s one way you can help us. If you have a company, we are targeting 1 million viewers. Potentially, we can get there.

And we have planned how we can get there. For them, who wants to showcase the those companies, climate friendly companies, we they can sponsor we have three four levels of opportunities for sponsorship. And, thirdly, you can help us by the sheer participation when you want to join, and we have a link for you. We can share that will mean you can join through that. Also we can we will give you that other stations, where if your local areas.

The TV market, your website Healthy Climate Initiative. Dr. Hart Yes. How the climateinitiative.org You’ll find all the information there.

Okay, great. Well, yeah, and we’ll certainly post this up on our website. And I, I think that it’s a great, great program and get awareness of this problem out to the masses and have them talk to their representatives about taking action because we need to start taking action. Leslie, what do you see is the next steps in, in the Himalayas?

And kind of from an engineering challenge? Do you have the ability or, you know, contracting with manufacturers to produce enough of this silica to make a meaningful impact?

Ah, yes, there are companies who are working with different variants of this one of which is using recycled glass. I’m really excited about that, that that opens up potentially a really large new source of such materials. We are continuing to test things as we can in a pretest you know, what, what is happening with darkening agents, what’s happening with slopes, things like that, because those are incredibly important questions we’re going to face when we get to the Himalayas.

And this conference last week the cryosphere 2022 conference in Iceland was just a what an incredible source of knowledge from people all over the world, you know, pouring in their knowledge, what are the next steps might be descend ourselves to two seasons a year in which we can experiment. And while I was at that conference, someone from Chile saw saw our work and got very excited about that, that would give us the two experimental seasons a year that would be incredibly important as well.

We’re, of course, always limited by funding and so I love that this climate benefit concert is going to be helping to let us get the field work done, get that in place, and we always need more talented people. So you know that it really is, you know, one or two people can do a bunch but you can do a lot more with with the right experts worldwide.

Are you going to be at the next COP conference and what’s your plan of action there?

I’m not sure that I will in person. It is not, you know, it’s a live streamed concert. I tried to be at the last one and had unfortunately was still not testing negative for COVID at the time that by would have been able to be there. We had gotten a green zone exhibition? Big poster there, Soumitra was there as part of the team that did get to present it. So we have had eight cop presents, but I didn’t get to be there.

Oh, maybe this year? Soumitra, what do you see on the horizon for you? And, and any cooperation or collaboration with the folks at Kopan? And how do you see that playing out for, for the bright ice Initiative and the work being done in the Himalayas?

The number one task we have are many out of many tasks. And number one, is that get this cell trial going, regardless whether we have money or not. But let us find a way to solve that problem. And that means that get from our own pocket to stop that thing. So that’s something we got to do. Number one thing filled trial number two.

So tell us how much is the field trial going to cost?

We are taking about a million dollars, okay. So it’s doable.

So we got 30 seconds for me to anything, final words for our audience before we wrap this up.

So I am pretty optimistic that this solution would work. I am ultimately optimistic that we are going to raise awareness in our climate of benefit concert with million, 1 million people began with 1 million people and will knock on the door for UN to sponsor next time, our effort when we have sometimes in couple of years. So that is what I’m thinking about. I’m very optimistic we’ll be able to get clobbered.

Appreciate, I appreciate all of you being on the show. I wish I had another hour or two to talk with you. You’re listening to A Climate Change. I’ve had Dr. Leslie Field, Dr. Soumitra Das and Dr. Subarna Bhattacharyya on the program and it’s been my pleasure to talk with all three of you about the great work that you’re doing and look forward to stay in touch with you and promoting the climate concert which we will have on our website and rolling and promoting that out to all of our sources.

Until next week. Have you always truce back with us. And have a great week everybody.

(Note: this is an automatic transcription and may have errors in formatting and grammar.)

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